There are 25 hydrological basins with a total surface water run-off of 193 billion m3 /year in Turkey as shown in figure 2. (Orman ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı, 2014) 4.9 billion m3 of water was abstracted from water sources by municipalities to water supply network. Out of this amount, 48.9% was abstracted from dams, 28.3% from wells, 19.2% from springs, 2% from lakes/artificial lakes and sea, and 1.6% from rivers. (TÜİK, Municipal Water Statistics 2012, 2014)
Figure 3. Amount of Drinking Water Treated
Average amount of water abstracted by municipalities to water supply network was determined as 216 liters per capita per day. In case of three largest cities, amount of abstracted water per capita per day was calculated as 186 liters for İstanbul, 217 liters for Ankara, and 223 liters for İzmir.
Some statistics related with the water resources, transmission, treatment and distribution are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Municipal Water Indicators
Municipal Water Indicators, 2002-2012
Total number of municipalities
Number of municipalities served by water supply network
Rate of population served by water supply networkintotal municipal population(%)
Total amount of water abstrated to water supply networks by resources (million m3/year)
Lare - Artificial lake/Sea
Amount of water distributed via water supply network (million m3/year)
Amount of water treated inwatertreatment plants (million m3/year)
Average amountofoster abstracted percapitaper day (liters/capita-day)
... Data not available
Above table indicates that, as of 2012 according to the results of Municipal Water Statistics Survey, 2928 municipalities out of 2 950 were served by water supply network. 99% of municipal population is served by a water supply system. In general, 83% of the population (urban 94%, rural 62%) of Turkey has access to improved sanitation, including the households at least having connection to public sewer, septic system or simple pit latrine. (EU Sector Operational Programme, 2014)
Drinking water treatment plants are provided in 346 municipalities, serving 54% of Turkey’s total municipal population. TÜİK, Municipal Water Statistics 2012, 2014)
Figure 3. Amount of Drinking Water Treated
As can be seen from Figure 3, amount of water treated increased from 1710 million m3 /year to 2729 million m3/year for the last 10 years.
Domestic water treatment plants are designed and constructed in accordance with the European standards. The capacities of the treatment facilities constructed vary between 1.600.000 m3/day and 50.000 m3/day depending on the population of the cities. (Adem, et al., 2009)
As of the end of 2011, DSİ has completed 44 water supply projects in operation supplying approximate annual total of 3.31 billion m3 of domestic and industrial water to 34 millions of people. The 32 domestic water treatment plants in 25 cities of above mentioned projects developed by DSİ are being operated by related municipalities. 5,798,788 m 3 /day of water volume is treated in these treatment plants in accordance with European Union standards. 25 cities‟ treatment plants developed by DSİ. After the completion of the construction works, these facilities are transferred to the related municipality.
According to the EU Sector Analysis Report (2014), specific objectives for drinking water quality and treatment are;
To provide drinking water to the population according to national and EU standards
To optimize the use of natural resources and to improve the efficiency of the water distribution system
To reduce the pollution load in receiving water bodies (surface and groundwater) and to protect drinking water systems from contamination;
To secure efficiency of wastewater treatment plants and to reduce operating costs.
Turkey has been carrying out several water management investment activities during the EU Accession period. Under EOP, out of 32 water management infrastructure projects submitted to the EC, 17 of them are under implementation.
Adem A.Ü. et al., Turkey Water Report, General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, Ankara, 2009.
DSİ, Foreign Relations Office, Water and DSi, General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, Ankara, 2012.
Muluk, Ç.B., Kurt, B., Turak, A., Türker, A., Çalışkan M.A., Balkız, Ö., Gümrükçü, S., Sarıgül, G.,Zeydanlı, U. 2013. Türkiye’de Suyun Durumu ve Su Yönetiminde Yeni Yaklaşımlar: Çevresel Perspektif. İş Dünyası ve Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma Derneği - Doğa Koruma Merkezi.
Forestry and Water Affairs, Ulusal Havza Yönetim Stratejisi 2014-2023, Ankara, 2014.
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